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GM1 Oligosaccharide Crosses the Human Blood–Brain Barrier In Vitro by a Paracellular Route

Abstract : Ganglioside GM1 (GM1) has been reported to functionally recover degenerated nervous system in vitro and in vivo, but the possibility to translate GM1's potential in clinical settings is counteracted by its low ability to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to its amphiphilic nature. Interestingly, the soluble and hydrophilic GM1-oligosaccharide (OligoGM1) is able to punctually replace GM1 neurotrophic functions alone, both in vitro and in vivo. In order to take advantage of OligoGM1 properties, which overcome GM1's pharmacological limitations, here we characterize the OligoGM1 brain transport by using a human in vitro BBB model. OligoGM1 showed a 20-fold higher crossing rate than GM1 and time-concentration-dependent transport. Additionally, OligoGM1 crossed the barrier at 4 °C and in inverse transport experiments, allowing consideration of the passive paracellular route. This was confirmed by the exclusion of a direct interaction with the active ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters using the "pump out" system. Finally, after barrier crossing, OligoGM1 remained intact and able to induce Neuro2a cell neuritogenesis by activating the TrkA pathway. Importantly, these in vitro data demonstrated that OligoGM1, lacking the hydrophobic ceramide, can advantageously cross the BBB in comparison with GM1, while maintaining its neuroproperties. This study has improved the knowledge about OligoGM1's pharmacological potential, offering a tangible therapeutic strategy.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 19, 2021 - 2:17:28 PM
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Di Biase et al., 2020.pdf
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Erika Di Biase, Giulia Lunghi, Margherita Maggioni, Maria Fazzari, Diego Yuri Pomè, et al.. GM1 Oligosaccharide Crosses the Human Blood–Brain Barrier In Vitro by a Paracellular Route. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020, 21 (8), pp.2858. ⟨10.3390/ijms21082858⟩. ⟨hal-03127393⟩



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