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Efficacité des aires protégées : la pierre angulaire de la conservation de la biodiversité permet-elle réellement de protéger la nature ?

Abstract : Humanity’s main hope to halt the ongoing dramatic biodiversity declines is to buffer and restrict human activities from some sites, called protected areas. Despite the central role that protected areas have in biodiversity conservation strategies, there have been surprisingly few studies evaluating their practical effects in terms of avoiding biodiversity loss. Measuring the difference protected areas make is challenging, as it requires substantial datasets that enable comparing biodiversity from protected versus unprotected counterfactual sites (differing only in their protection status). In this thesis, I take advantage of extensive publicly available datasets, mainly from citizen science programs, to measure the effectiveness of protected areas. In the first chapter, I use bird data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and show that protected areas do not increase overall species richness or abundance but that they favour specialist species. In the second chapter, I focus on tropical forests from eight biodiversity hotpots and use eBird data (a global network of bird observations) to show that protected areas mitigate declines from forest-dependent, endemic, and threatened species. I additionally show that this positive effect on birds is due to the mitigating effect that protected areas have on both forest loss and forest degradation. In the third chapter, I model the sensitivity to human pressure of all bird species breeding in the Americas and explore the ability of the protected area network to conserve the most sensitive species. I show that protected area intactness is not higher where species need it the most, leaving many high-sensitivity species with null coverage of their distribution by intact protected habitats. Finally, in the fourth chapter, I question the effects that protected areas can have on human behaviours, showing that inhabitants from municipalities that are located close to natural parks in France are more likely to adopt pro-environmental behaviours. Globally, this thesis emphasises that protected areas can be an effective tool to conserve biodiversity and highlights the need to, and the complexity of, measuring their effectiveness.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 18, 2021 - 12:03:44 PM
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2020_CAZALIS_archivage.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-03145337, version 1

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Victor Cazalis. Efficacité des aires protégées : la pierre angulaire de la conservation de la biodiversité permet-elle réellement de protéger la nature ?. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020MONTG019⟩. ⟨tel-03145337⟩

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