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Compromis écophysiologiques, stratégies d’utilisation des ressources et adaptation locale chez l’espèce modèle Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

Abstract : Comparative ecology, through large-scale screening of plant morpho-physiological traits, has brought evidence that plant diversity is constrained. Several co-variations between functional traits appear to be pervasive across species and ecosystems. This has been interpreted as differing resource use ecological strategies. At the leaf scale, the negative correlation between leaf lifespan and leaf photosynthetic rate represents a major trade-off of carbon economy common to all plants. This trade-off is expected to involve other leaf properties related to water and nutrient acquisition and conservation within an integrated resource economics syndrome. However, up to now the evolutionary and physiological bases of this syndrome are poorly understood. This thesis aims to fill this gap by exploring the genetic and physiologic mechanisms involved. We translated the interspecific comparative approach to the study of large sets of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We analyzed the covariation between traits related to carbon economy and nitrogen conservation at the leaf and plant scales, and explored the role of leaf vein architecture in the resource economics syndrome. Taking advantage from the extensive genetic data and the genetic tools available for the species, we detected significant associations between genes and functional traits involved in this syndrome. Further, a population genetic approach revealed evidence of selection associated with natural variation of plant level ecological strategies, leaf vein architecture and nitrogen conservation.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 10, 2021 - 9:38:10 AM
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Kevin Sartori. Compromis écophysiologiques, stratégies d’utilisation des ressources et adaptation locale chez l’espèce modèle Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020MONTG009⟩. ⟨tel-03136974⟩

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