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L'enseignement de notion de modèle : quels modèles pour faire comprendre la distinction entre modèle et réalité ?

Abstract : Models are found in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology alike, and for this reason, they can create coherence in the teaching of the different sciences. The French curriculum requires teachers to first tackle models in junior high school, in spite of the fact that research has shown that both pupils and teachers have difficulty understanding the notion which are due to its epistemology. It is for this reason that in this paper we have focussed on a form of teaching which could help to make the distinction between the model and what it represents. It is this distinction which is problematic, and thus central from an epistemological point of view. In this perspective, we suggest a way of teaching model, which is supported by an epistemological analysis, so as to examine what could make it easier for pupils to make the distinction, and lead them to consider how naively realistic their conception of science is in most cases. It is found that the models chosen by teachers to facilitate pupil understanding need to meet three requirements. They need to be based on a perceptible empirical referent ; enable pupils to break the biunivocal correspondence between the object and the representation of the object ; and to be significantly different from the phenomenon being studied. 25 beginner physics and chemistry teachers in French secondary schools took part in a questionnaire-based study. The study showed that most of these teachers do not approach model in this way, which leads us to question how they are trained and the place given to models in school curricula. The best conditions for building model notions that can be used in all experimental sciences being determined, we discuss the issue within the framework of science and technology integrated teaching.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00853456
Contributor : Ludovic Morge <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, February 3, 2021 - 10:19:08 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, February 23, 2021 - 4:24:04 PM

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Ludovic Morge, Anne-Marie Doly. L'enseignement de notion de modèle : quels modèles pour faire comprendre la distinction entre modèle et réalité ?. Spirale - Revue de Recherches en Éducation , Association pour la Recherche en Education (ARED), 2013, 52, pp.149-175. ⟨hal-00853456⟩

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